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Contents

  1. cottonocracy - Wiktionary
  2. About This Item
  3. Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts

Italian merchants prospered in 15th-century England, and important privileges were accorded to the German Hanseatic merchants by Edward IV. Culturally the 15th century was a period of sterility. Monastic chronicles came to an end, and the writing of history declined.

cottonocracy - Wiktionary

Thomas Walsingham d. Albans chroniclers. Although there were some chronicles written by citizens of London as well as two lives of Henry V, distinguished works of history did not come until later. Neither were there any superior works of philosophy or theology. Reginald Pecock, an arid Scholastic philosopher, wrote an English treatise against the Lollards and various other works emphasizing the rational element in the Christian faith; he was judged guilty of heresy for his pains. No noteworthy poets succeeded Chaucer, though a considerable quantity of English poetry was written in this period.

John Lydgate produced much verse in the Lancastrian interest. The printer William Caxton set up his press in to publish English works for the growing reading public.


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The first great collections of family correspondence, those of the Pastons, Stonors, and Celys, survive from this period. The 15th century, however, was an important age in the foundation of schools and colleges. Some schools were set up as adjuncts to chantries, some by guilds, and some by collegiate churches.

Other colleges at Oxford and Cambridge were also founded in this period. The Inns of Court expanded their membership and systematized their teaching of law. The influence of the Italian Renaissance in learning and culture was very limited before , although there were some notable patrons, such as Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester , who collected books and supported scholars interested in the new learning.

Only in architecture did England show great originality.

Large churches were built in English Perpendicular style , especially in regions made rich by the woolen industry. When Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond , seized the throne on August 22, , leaving the Yorkist Richard III dead upon the field of battle, few Englishmen would have predicted that years of Tudor rule had begun. Simple arithmetic forecast that Henry VII would last no more than a decade and that the Battle of Bosworth Field was nothing more than another of the erratic swings of the military pendulum in the struggle between the house of York and the house of Lancaster.

What gave Henry Tudor victory in was not so much personal charisma as the fact that key noblemen deserted Richard III at the moment of his greatest need, that Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Stanley and his brother Sir William stood aside during most of the battle in order to be on the winning team, and that Louis XI of France supplied the Lancastrian forces with 1, mercenary troops. Had quality of Plantagenet blood, not military conquest, been the essential condition of monarchy, Edward, earl of Warwick, the year-old nephew of Edward IV , would have sat upon the throne.

Might, not soiled right, had won out on the high ground at Bosworth Field, and Henry VII claimed his title by conquest. The new king wisely sought to fortify his doubtful genealogical pretension, however, first by parliamentary acclamation and then by royal marriage. The day was coming when the successful prince would be more praised than the heroic monarch and the solvent sovereign more admired than the pious one. Henry Tudor was probably no better or worse than the first Lancastrian, Henry IV; they both worked diligently at their royal craft and had to fight hard to keep their crowns, but the seventh Henry achieved what the fourth had not—a secure and permanent dynasty—because England in was moving into a period of unprecedented economic growth and social change.

By the kingdom had begun to recover from the demographic catastrophe of the Black Death and the agricultural depression of the late 14th century. As the 15th century came to a close, the rate of population growth began to increase and continued to rise throughout the following century. The population , which in may have dropped as low as 2. More people meant more mouths to feed, more backs to cover, and more vanity to satisfy. In response, yeoman farmers, gentleman sheep growers, urban cloth manufacturers, and merchant adventurers produced a social and economic revolution.

By they were a chartered organization with a legal monopoly of the woolen cloth trade, and, largely as a consequence of their political and international importance, Henry successfully negotiated the Intercursus Magnus, a highly favourable commercial treaty between England and the Low Countries. As landlords increased the size of their flocks to the point that ruminants outnumbered human beings 3 to 1 and as clothiers grew rich on the wool trade, inflation injected new life into the economy. England was caught up in a vast European spiral of rising prices, declining real wages, and cheap money.

Between and , prices in England doubled, and they doubled again in the next generation.


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In the cost of wheat was what it had been in ; by it had tripled. Contemporaries blamed inflation on human greed and only slowly began to perceive that rising prices were the result of inflationary pressures brought on by the increase in population, international war, and the flood of gold and silver arriving from the New World. The download the expansion of england essays you squarely used found the Y renewal. There are envi-ronmental instructions that could display this M trying facing a free science or problem, a SQL guidance or social minutes.

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Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts

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