Other search systems have developed around codes for various key features in the reaction. One can, of course, search large databases, such as Chemical Abstracts, for reaction information.
But in recent years, a number of specialized reaction chemistry databases have come on the scene to assist in a search for reaction information. In addition, there are specialized printed sources that codify the many discoveries in the reaction chemistry area. Some of the most important sources are discussed in this chapter. The Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry and the Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry are two comprehensive sources that include preparation and formation information.
Of course, for the printed older volumes it is necessary to cope with the text in German, but here is a list of selected German words for reaction chemistry that should assist you.
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A search of the CrossFire Beilstein Database for "Isatin" shows that the record for the compound had at the time of the search entries for Reaction and 6 entries for Isolation from a Natural Product. It also included 15 Derivatives. One of the references is:. In fact, the preferred way to search for a compound in Beilstein is by structure. Thus, we see that it is possible to find reaction information using the compound name or structure if the record for the compound is among the many millions of compounds currently in the database on Reaxys successor to the CrossFire system , that includes both Beilstein and Gmelin.
When at least two depictions of chemical substances are drawn on the screen and one is selected, the reaction editing component of the CrossFire system appeared, giving the option to define the selected substance as either a Reactant or a Product. It was even possible to graph one or more atoms from the Reactant molecule onto a position in the Product in order to insure that the reaction s found in the search would allow the desired modifications to occur only at specific points on the molecule.
You could also just draw the target structure and assign the role - reactant or product - using the radio buttons in the CrossFireCommander 7 series. At the time of the graphical search, 60 reactions were found in which isatin was a product, and the third of those is shown below. Please note that Beilstein and Gmelin collate reportings of the same reacton with different conditions from different publications in one display for the reaction.
The Gmelin database joined Beilstein in the CrossFire family of searchable databases. From v. Now both databases are integrated into the Reaxys system. Houben-Weyl is one of the most significant and comprehensive reference works ever published in the field of organic synthesis. It contains a mass of useful and insightful synthetic methodology information for the synthetic organic chemist.
The content covers preparative methods for different compound classes and treats them comprehensively and critically. Extensive tables of examples show their scope and limitations. Detailed experimental procedures are given for the most important methods. Also, there is an introductory section for each compound class which covers an overview of structure, reactivity, stability, spectroscopic characteristics, nomenclature, natural occurrence and applications.
These include translated table of contents which are text-searchable online, formulae-containing indexes, user guides and posters. The comprehensive description of preparative methods in a consistent style and their critical evaluation by leading experts constitute the philosophy on which Houben—Weyl was founded.
The 4 volumes of the second edition were published between and The third edition, consisting of 4 volumes, was published between and The fourth edition began in and ended in with a total of 67 volumes and 3 index volumes. The series was updated with 89 additional and supplementary volumes, which placed emphasis on the treatment of important classes of compounds and significant preparative methods.
From onwards, Houben—Weyl was published in English, thus making it accessible to chemists worldwide.
A stable germanone as the first isolated heavy ketone with a terminal oxygen atom
The last volume of Houben—Weyl was published in The total series consisted of volumes and , pages. Houben-Weyl is organized by class of compound or functional group to be synthesized. Thus, it is structured according to the type of product formed, with only the principal function considered. This is determined by the level of oxidation, substitution or saturation of the carbon atom s.
In general, higher oxidation levels have priority over lower ones and heterofunctional atoms or groups are classified according to a priority list that puts CX3 at the top and P at the bottom. In Houben-Weyl, transformations of the principal functional group are illustrated by typical examples. Patents are included in the scope of coverage, and the important preparative methods for all classes of compounds are presented.
The Houben-Weyl legacy archive has been available online since and is included as the backfile in the electronic version of Science of Synthesis.
Science of Synthesis is an entirely new edition of Houben-Weyl designed to cater to the broader information needs of the synthetic organic chemist today. It is considered to be the best secondary source of information other than the original journal articles for methods of synthesis of the functional groups covered. It consists of 48 volumes to be published in print and online between and As of mid, 28 of the volumes had been published, with the majority available online.
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Over renowned organic chemists worldwide have been involved with or are currently working on contributions to the project. The purpose of Science of Synthesis is to critically evaluate all existing methods in organic and organometallic chemistry. The most important molecular transformations for a product class are selected and their scope and limitations summarized. In addition the transformations are further illustrated using proven general or typical methods.
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Contributions contain background information, a comparison of methods, mechanistic rationale, stereochemistry, experimental procedures, information on scope, limitations and problems, functional group compatibility, and safety and environmental aspects. The organization of Science of Synthesis is based on the structural unit or functional group for example, a heteroaromatic ring or an enone that is to be constructed. That is to say, the classification is based on the product how do I make something?
Thus, a synthetic method, such as catalytic hydrogenation, that can be employed for a variety of product types, will be found throughout the work, depending on the structure of the compound produced. Likewise, the various reactions of a given compound class, such as alcohols, are located throughout the work on the basis of the product. The online product has been available since and supports combined keyword, text, and reaction searches.
Version 3. Crossovers to databases and electronic journals are fully supported, thus allowing chemists to gather further information about their target compounds. The electronic product has browsing features and an interactive table of contents to enable easy navigation within the product. The product is better described as an e-reference book as opposed to a database because of the wealth of knowledge around each of the reactions and the context within which they are presented.
Science of Synthesis Start Page. Science of Synthesis Benzofuryllithium Page. Organic Syntheses began publication in and is published annually. The procedures are cumulated into collective volumes with revisions if necessary. Ten of the collective volumes covering annual volumes have been published to date.
The articles are sufficiently detailed so that the reactions described can usually be carried out without consulting the original primary literature. In later years, the emphasis has been on model compounds and procedures that illustrate important types of reactions.
enter site The Organic Syntheses Reaction Guide covers experimental procedures in Collective Volumes and annual volumes Eleven broad classes of reactions are used to index the reactions. It requires the installation of the free ChemDraw Net plugin from CambridgeSoft, but once that is in place, even structure searches can be performed. Additional ways of searching the database include CAS RN, molecular formula, and chemical name, plus author and keyword searching.
Below is the result of a structure search on Organic Syntheses for Isatin. As is typical of the long publication span of most treatises, Inorganic Reactions and Methods began publication in and was completed in Volumes cover ways of forming bonds with inorganic elements, methods of effecting various types of reactions, and methods of characterizing the compounds.
The set is well indexed. Of particular note is a permuted formula index which groups all compounds containing a given number of an element in one section of the index. A longstanding inorganic series that has appeared since is Inorganic Syntheses , for which a collective index of volumes of the series covering , has now appeared.
The Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry in 8 volumes covers all aspects of inorganic chemistry, including information on reactions and bonding energetics. Pergamon Press has published a large number of multi-volume treatises on various areas of chemistry over the years:. A major thrust of the Pergamon treatises is syntheses and reactions. Each of the sets has a distinguished editorial board and is thoroughly referenced to the original primary literature. A feature of some of the treatises is an index of review articles and specialist textbooks relevant to the topic.
It is often useful to find a description of a reagent to determine whether it has been used in the preparation of a given compound or a compound that is similar to the one which is to be made. A recent set is the 8-volume Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis The preface to the work notes the "vital need to know which reagent will perform a specific transformation. These include reagents, auxiliaries, and catalysts for C-C bond formation; oxidizing and reducing agents; acidic and basic reagents; activating agents and protecting groups; chiral reagents for asymmetric synthesis; reagents for high-throughput solid-phase and solution-phase organic synthesis; reagents for glycoside, nucleotide, and peptide synthesis; and reagents for direct functionalization of C-H bonds.
The set is indexed by formula, structural class, function, and subject indexes. Looks like you are currently in Finland but have requested a page in the United States site. Would you like to change to the United States site? Zuckerman Founding Editor , A. Hagen Editor. Undetected location. NO YES. Home Subjects Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry.
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